Japan climate – Const Japan http://const-japan.com/ Sun, 10 Oct 2021 01:01:00 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.8 https://const-japan.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/07/icon-2021-07-05T131502.299-150x150.png Japan climate – Const Japan http://const-japan.com/ 32 32 Nobel laureate Manabe shunned Japanese “harmony” for American franchise https://const-japan.com/nobel-laureate-manabe-shunned-japanese-harmony-for-american-franchise/ Sun, 10 Oct 2021 01:01:00 +0000 https://const-japan.com/nobel-laureate-manabe-shunned-japanese-harmony-for-american-franchise/ NEW YORK / TOKYO – When Japanese meteorologist Syukuro Manabe spoke about his troubles with Japan, laughter could be heard among the audience gathered at Princeton University to hear this year’s Nobel Prize winner in physics ‘Express. “In Japan, if you ask a question you get ‘yes’ or ‘no’,” Manabe said in front of a […]]]>

NEW YORK / TOKYO – When Japanese meteorologist Syukuro Manabe spoke about his troubles with Japan, laughter could be heard among the audience gathered at Princeton University to hear this year’s Nobel Prize winner in physics ‘Express.

“In Japan, if you ask a question you get ‘yes’ or ‘no’,” Manabe said in front of a crowded auditorium on Tuesday, the same day he received the award for his work in helping the world understand the climate change. “However, when the Japanese say ‘yes’ it doesn’t necessarily mean ‘yes’. It could mean ‘no.'”

But in America, “I can do whatever I want. I don’t care how other people feel.”

Although these words were received half-jokingly, they contained a message that should be heard by Japanese policymakers and academic circles. Manabe’s criticism of a culture that places greater value on so-called face-saving than outspoken frankness is a factor that some academics say could weaken the traditionally strong science and technology community. from Japan.

For Manabe, the desire to break out of the conformist bubble came shortly after graduation. He moved to the United States in 1958 after obtaining his doctorate in meteorology from the prestigious University of Tokyo. This is where his cutting edge research was encouraged. He would go on to develop a computer simulation that showed the link between an increase in carbon dioxide concentration and higher global temperatures.

“I never imagined that this thing I was starting to study would have such a huge consequence,” said Manabe, now Princeton’s senior meteorologist.

Being “driven by curiosity,” a phrase he used repeatedly during the hour-long press conference on the Ivy League campus, is his biggest motivation. Even at 90, he talks about the climate and his relationship with all living things with the fascination of a young boy.

However, neither Manabe’s climate model nor the truth about global warming was quickly accepted. It took time for meaningful action to be taken. The first important step towards wider awareness of climate change came in 1992 when the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change was adopted after the Earth Summit in Brazil.

Even then, global warming skeptics remained firmly in the mainstream for several years.

Understanding climate change is not easy, “but [it’s] much, much easier than what is happening in current politics, ”Manabe joked.

Manabe likely faced his fair share of frustrations – many of which came from Japan. When asked why he transferred his citizenship to the United States, his response was straightforward.

“I don’t want to go back to Japan,” Manabe said. “Because I am not able to live harmoniously.”

Manabe returned to Japan briefly in 1997 when he was appointed to lead research on climate change predictions at an agency under the country’s current Ministry of Science, around the time the protocol was adopted. of Kyoto, a United Nations treaty that called for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. worldwide. While in Japan, he worked on the Earth Simulator supercomputer project, which used climate models to assess the effects of global warming.

But the stint did not last long. “Global warming research ace returns to the United States,” said a 2001 headline in the Nikkei newspaper.

While in Japan, Manabe found himself caught up in the country’s bureaucracy, spending a lot of time coordinating the various research agencies. There were also staff shortages and the unique custom of Japan that discourages people from speaking up.

These burdens on his research work would be unimaginable in the United States. If Manabe had spent his entire career in Japan, he might not have achieved such historic achievements.

A maverick would be out of place in an environment that demands accommodating attitudes and reading the play. For a researcher who dares to achieve the unprecedented, Japan could not have been a good choice.

Manabe praised his supervisor in the US

“My boss was generous enough to let me do whatever I loved to do,” Manabe said. “And here I have everything [the] IT expenses. “

Even with climate deniers, Manabe received lavish funds that allowed him to pursue what his heart desired.

Manabe believes that Japan is engaging in “less and less curiosity-driven research.” Despite being the 20th Japanese-born Nobel Laureate since 2000, most of the winning achievements date back to the salad days before the economic bubble burst in the 1990s.

In 2018, Japan ranked ninth in the world in terms of belonging to the top 1% of academic citations, according to the Japan National Institute for Science and Technology Policy, which is a drop from fourth place 20 years earlier.

Progress appears to be stagnating due to the lack of stable research funds and positions for young scientists. As a result, the number of groundbreaking search results is declining. More than a few critics believe the scramble for Japanese Nobel Prizes will end sooner or later.

The structural problems in the Japanese scientific community that Manabe criticized stem from the lack of communication between scientists and policymakers. The gap between academia and the center of Japanese government is unusually wide, and science and technology are rarely given political priority.

This incomprehension between the two parties manifested itself during the coronavirus epidemic in Japan.

In recent years, Japanese Nobel laureates have warned of a looming scientific and technological crisis in the country. While these alarm bells may receive brief attention, they have not resulted in any drastic changes in government policy.

With the new Japanese Prime Minister Fumio Kishida, who was once Minister of State for Science and Technology Policy, perhaps the warnings of Manabe and other scientists will no longer fall on deaf ears.


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The hydrogen moment has finally arrived https://const-japan.com/the-hydrogen-moment-has-finally-arrived/ Fri, 08 Oct 2021 22:22:40 +0000 https://const-japan.com/the-hydrogen-moment-has-finally-arrived/ October 9, 2021 HYDROGEN A controversial since the tragedy of the Hindenburg, a filled airship that caught fire in 1937. Boosters say gas is a low-carbon miracle that can power cars and homes. The hydrogen economy, they hope, will redraw the energy map. Skeptics note that several hydrogen investment campaigns since the 1970s have ended […]]]>

HYDROGEN A controversial since the tragedy of the Hindenburg, a filled airship that caught fire in 1937. Boosters say gas is a low-carbon miracle that can power cars and homes. The hydrogen economy, they hope, will redraw the energy map. Skeptics note that several hydrogen investment campaigns since the 1970s have ended in tears as the gas shortcomings were exposed. As we explain, the reality lies between the two. Hydrogen technologies could eliminate perhaps a tenth of current greenhouse gas emissions by 2050. That’s no big deal, but, given the scale of the energy transition, crucial and lucrative .

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Hydrogen is not a primary energy source like petroleum or coal. It is best to think of it as an energy carrier, similar to electricity, and as a storage medium, like a battery. It must be manufactured. Low carbon energy sources such as renewables and nuclear power can be used to separate water (H2O) in its constituents of oxygen and hydrogen. It is inefficient and expensive, but the costs go down. Hydrogen can also be made from dirty fossil fuels, but that emits a lot of pollution unless it’s combined with technologies that capture carbon and sequester it. Hydrogen is flammable and bulky compared to many fuels. The relentless laws of thermodynamics mean that the conversion of primary energy into hydrogen and then hydrogen into usable energy leads to waste.

All of this explains the delicate history of gas. The oil shocks of the 1970s led to research into hydrogen technologies, but they never got very far. In the 1980s, the Soviet Union even flew a hydrogen airliner – the maiden flight lasted just 21 minutes.

Today, climate change is causing a new wave of enthusiasm. More than 350 large projects are underway, and cumulative investments could reach $ 500 billion by 2030. Morgan Stanley, a bank, estimates that annual hydrogen sales could reach $ 600 billion by 2050. C ‘ is up from $ 150 billion in sales today, which mostly come from industrial processes, including the manufacture of fertilizers. India will soon hold an auction for the hydrogen and Chile is holding tenders for its production on public land. More than a dozen countries, including Britain, France, Germany, Japan and South Korea, have national hydrogen plans.

In the midst of the excitement, it’s worth being clear about what hydrogen can and can’t do. Japanese and South Korean companies want to sell cars that use hydrogen fuel cells, but battery-powered cars are about twice as energy efficient. Some European countries hope to get hydrogen into homes, but heat pumps are more efficient and some pipes cannot handle gas safely. Some large energy companies and petro-states want to use natural gas to produce hydrogen without effectively capturing the associated carbon, but this does not eliminate the emissions.

Instead, hydrogen can help in niche markets, involving complex chemical processes and high temperatures that are hard to achieve with electricity. Steel companies, which emit around 8% of global emissions, depend on coking coal and blast furnaces that wind power cannot replace but hydrogen can replace, using a process known as direct reduction . Hybrit, a Swedish consortium, sold the world’s first green steel made this way in August.

Another niche is commercial transport, especially for journeys beyond batteries. Hydrogen trucks can beat their battery-powered rivals with faster refueling, more cargo space and greater range. Cummins, an American company, is betting on them. Hydrogen-derived fuels can also be useful in aviation and navigation. Alstom, a French company, circulates hydrogen locomotives on European tracks.

Finally, hydrogen can be used as a material to store and transport bulk energy. Renewable grids struggle when the wind dies or it gets dark. Batteries can help, but if renewable energy is converted to hydrogen, it can be stored cheaply for long periods of time and converted to electricity on demand. A Utah power plant plans to store the gas in caverns to supply California. Sunny and windy places without transmission links can export clean energy in the form of hydrogen. Australia, Chile and Morocco hope to “send sunshine” to the world.

With so much money accumulating in hydrogen, the list of its uses can go on. Much of the work falls to the private sector, but governments can do their part. One task is to crack down on greenwashing: Hydrogen made from dirty fuels without high quality carbon capture will not help the climate. New rules are needed to measure and disclose life cycle emissions from hydrogen production and, as it will be traded across borders, these require international agreement.

The rainmakers are settling in

The government should also encourage poles where different hydrogen users cluster together, thereby minimizing the need for duplicating infrastructure. These are already emerging at Humberside in Great Britain and Rotterdam in the Netherlands. Hydrogen has its limits, but it can play a vital role in producing cleaner energy.

For more information on climate change, sign up for The Climate Issue, our bimonthly newsletter, or visit our climate change hub

This article appeared in the Leaders section of the print edition under the title “Hydrogen’s hope and hype”


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Factbox: Main parties contesting Japan’s lower house poll https://const-japan.com/factbox-main-parties-contesting-japans-lower-house-poll/ Thu, 07 Oct 2021 10:36:00 +0000 https://const-japan.com/factbox-main-parties-contesting-japans-lower-house-poll/ Newly elected Japanese Prime Minister Fumio Kishida is applauded after being chosen as the new Prime Minister at the Lower House of Parliament in Tokyo, Japan on October 4, 2021. REUTERS / Kim Kyung-Hoon TOKYO, October 7 (Reuters) – Japan’s new Prime Minister Fumio Kishida has set October 31 for national elections to the lower […]]]>

Newly elected Japanese Prime Minister Fumio Kishida is applauded after being chosen as the new Prime Minister at the Lower House of Parliament in Tokyo, Japan on October 4, 2021. REUTERS / Kim Kyung-Hoon

TOKYO, October 7 (Reuters) – Japan’s new Prime Minister Fumio Kishida has set October 31 for national elections to the lower house of parliament this week.

The ruling Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) and its junior coalition partner currently hold a majority of nearly two-thirds of the House’s 465 seats, and Kishida hopes they will retain a majority.

Here are the highlights on the major political parties in Japan.

DEMOCRATIC LIBERAL PARTY

Creation date: 1955

Website: www.jimin.jp/english/

Number of seats in the Lower House currently occupied: 274

The PLD has maintained close ties with business and bureaucracy and has been in power almost continuously since its formation, apart from a three-year hiatus between 2009-2012.

Under Shinzo Abe’s leadership, the PLD regained its status as a governing party in 2012.

Abe led the PLD to three victories in the lower house elections and thus became the longest-serving Japanese prime minister. He resigned last year for poor health.

Under his “Abenomics” stimulus policies, stock prices and corporate earnings soared, but household wealth declined as companies hesitated to raise wages.

While pursuing economic growth, Kishida has made closing the wealth gap part of his agenda.

The LDP proposes to revise the pacifist constitution drafted by the United States in four areas, notably by enshrining the role of the Self-Defense Forces.

Despite all the lingering anxiety over nuclear power plants since the Fukushima disaster in 2011, Kishida believes nuclear power should remain an option for Japan to ensure stable and affordable electricity.

KOMEITO

Creation date: 1964

Website: www.komei.or.jp/en/

Number of seats in the Lower House currently occupied: 29

The Komeito, founded by members of the Soka Gakkai Buddhist sect, was a junior partner of the LDP-led governments for 10 years until the ruling alliance was defeated in the 2009 election. But it returned to power with the PLD during the December 2012 elections.

The Komeito is more moderate on security issues than the LDP. In terms of economic policy, the party seeks to defend the interests of the less well-off citizens. Last year, Komeito continued a program to donate 100,000 yen ($ 896) per citizen to help them cope with the pandemic.

CONSTITUTIONAL DEMOCRATIC PARTY OF JAPAN (CDPJ)

Date of creation: 2020

Website: cdp-japan.jp/english

Number of seats in the Lower House currently occupied: 110

The center-left CDPJ is the largest opposition party in Japan. Although it was only formed last year, the roots of the CDPJ lie in the Democratic Party of Japan, which succeeded in defeating the LDP-Komeito alliance in 2009, and held power for three years. .

The party advocates halving the sales tax to 5% temporarily, to cushion the blow of the pandemic.

Its policies on climate change are more ambitious than those of the PLD. The CDPJ has set itself a target of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 55% or more from 2013 levels by 2030, compared to the government’s target of a 46% reduction.

A daily Asahi poll showed Wednesday that 13% of those polled plan to vote for the CDPJ in the next election, far behind the LDP’s 41%.

JAPANESE COMMUNIST PARTY (JCP)

Creation date: 1922

Website: www.jcp.or.jp/english/

Number of lower chambers currently held: 12

Starting with a history of nearly a century, the JCP calls for doubling the number of hospital beds for patients with infectious diseases in order to better fight the pandemic, and to make the rich and big companies support a plus. large share of the tax burden.

JAPAN INNOVATION PARTY (JIP)

Creation date: 2015

Website: o-ishin.jp/ (only in Japanese)

Number of lower chambers currently held: 10

The PIJ calls for deregulation, tax cuts and decentralization of power to help spark growth. He favors constitutional revisions and was seen as a possible ally for the LDP’s push to revise the charter.

DEMOCRATIC PARTY FOR THE PEOPLE (DPFP)

Creation date: 2000

Website: new-kokumin.jp/ (only in Japanese)

Number of seats in the Lower House currently occupied: 8

The party is calling for a stimulus package worth 50 trillion yen to support those affected by the coronavirus pandemic. He sees nuclear power as an important option for Japan, until alternative energy sources are firmly established.

OTHERS

Among the other small parties, one of the most interesting is the regional Tokyo Citizens First party, formed by Tokyo Governor Yuriko Koike. He said earlier this month he would start a national party and contest the lower house elections.

($ 1 = 111.5700 yen)

Reporting by Kiyoshi Takenaka; Editing by Simon Cameron-Moore

Our Standards: Thomson Reuters Trust Principles.


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Coal shortages drive up prices and strain economies https://const-japan.com/coal-shortages-drive-up-prices-and-strain-economies/ Wed, 06 Oct 2021 22:02:50 +0000 https://const-japan.com/coal-shortages-drive-up-prices-and-strain-economies/ Dan Brouillette on elections, energy, jobs Coal supply shortages are pushing fuel prices to record highs and laying bare the challenges of weaning the world economy from one of its most important and polluting energy sources. The crisis has many causes, from the post-pandemic boom to supply chain tensions and ambitious carbon reduction targets. And […]]]>

Coal supply shortages are pushing fuel prices to record highs and laying bare the challenges of weaning the world economy from one of its most important and polluting energy sources.

The crisis has many causes, from the post-pandemic boom to supply chain tensions and ambitious carbon reduction targets. And it is expected to last at least all winter, raising fears in many countries of fuel shortages in the coming months.

Australian thermal coal from Newcastle, a global benchmark, is trading at $ 202 per metric tonne, three times more than at the end of 2019. Global production of coal, which generates around 40% of the world’s electricity, is lower by about 5% than before the pandemic. levels.

In Europe, rising prices for coal and other energy resources have affected factory output and pushed up household energy bills. Large Asian coal importers, including Japan and South Korea, are scrambling to secure their supplies.

In China, dwindling supplies and soaring costs have led to power shortages on a scale not seen in more than a decade, hitting the industry and prompting some cities to put out traffic lights to save energy. .

It’s a stark reminder of how large parts of the world depend on coal, just weeks before a United Nations climate summit in Glasgow aimed at accelerating the shift from fossil fuels to renewables.

AOC, LES PROGRESSIFS LAUNCH A NEW GREEN NEW DEAL PRESS WITH SEVERAL LEGISLATIONS

China, the world’s second-largest economy and the largest consumer of coal, is at the heart of the current crisis. As Beijing sought to meet its climate goals, it allowed coal stocks to decline. On top of that, he halted imports of Australian coal amid a diplomatic row.

The fallout from last year’s decision is still reshaping global coal supply chains, attracting new buyers to Australia and prompting China to venture as far as Latin America, Africa and Europe in its search for alternative suppliers.

Globally, the supply of coal has not kept pace with demand driven by the strong global economic recovery from last year’s pandemic crisis. Last year, production fell about 5% from 2019. And increasing production is taking time, according to charcoal producers. They say it can take nine months to get new mining trucks and even longer to install new equipment in the mines.

“We are at the peak in terms of capacity,” said Isidro Consunji, chairman of the Philippines’ largest producer, Semirara Mining & Power Corp., most of whose exports go to China. “The price of coal has increased four times in the past year. I don’t think anyone in the world expected such a situation.”

Global dependence on coal has tended to fluctuate based on economic growth rather than governments’ climate ambitions, analysts said. Global coal use fell last year during the pandemic, but is expected to reach or exceed 2019 levels this year.

“When economic growth collapses, demand for coal slows down and everyone thinks we are moving away from coal, but as soon as growth returns, coal use picks up again,” said Rory Simington, analyst at energy researcher Wood Mackenzie. “There is a difference between what people perceive about the energy transition and what is actually happening. “

Part of the coal supply crisis is due to production shutdowns as countries try to meet their emissions targets. Spain, for example, shut down half of its coal production last year and promised to phase out all coal-fired power plants by 2030.

The upheaval in the sector extends a decades-long transformation of coal trade patterns, marked by “a shift to Asia and Europe’s decline in international coal markets”, according to the International Energy Agency based in Paris.

The rise in Asia is helping to boost prices. A third to a half of the coal from Australia, one of the world’s largest coal exporters, went to China before Beijing, stung by Canberra’s call for an independent investigation into the origins of Covid-19, n ‘imposed its unofficial ban last fall.

For other Asian economies, the sudden availability of Australian supply has been a boon. As China depleted coal stocks in early 2020, demand for Australian coal increased in South Korea by 56% in the first half of 2021 and by 65% ​​in Japan, according to official data.

Yet Australian exports are unlikely to bridge the gap between growing global demand, the race to stock up for the winter, and bottleneck supply. Analysts estimate that global coal exports this year are expected to increase by around 2.5% from 2020, but demand is expected to have grown at nearly double that rate.

India nearly doubled its July imports of Australian metallurgical coal, used in steelmaking, year-on-year, reinforcing a trend since the start of the year, although its supply is still insufficient .

In Japan, a spokesperson for Nippon Steel Corp. said it had stepped up its purchases of Australian coking coal this year as demand for steel rebounded amid an economic recovery from the pandemic.

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At some of Japan’s power plants, expectations of generation shortages this winter prompted Japan’s largest power producer, JERA Co., to carry out early checks of the plants to ensure sufficient electricity supplies, said a spokesperson.

In recent years, Australia has supplied an average of 85 million metric tonnes of coal per year to China, more than Canada’s annual production. To make up for this shortfall, China has exploited nations near and far, in some cases more than twice as far away as Australia. Coal imports from Russia roughly doubled year over year in the first eight months to 21 million metric tonnes. US coal quadrupled to 5.7 million tonnes during the period.

Asian suppliers stepped in to replace Australian volumes destined for China. Filipino producer Semirara said its average selling price of coal rose 49% in the first half of this year due to rising demand from China. The company is trying to increase its capacity to meet higher demand.

China’s attempts to find new buyers have not been smooth. As Beijing’s feud with Canberra escalated, the Chinese have attempted to block purchases of Indonesian coal, most of which is low-grade increasingly shunned by global markets. But episodes of heavy rains disrupted supplies. Indonesian coal exports to China fell 8.6% month-on-month in August, following similar declines in January, April and May, official data showed.

Colombia and Kazakhstan are among the unlikely winners. Prior to this year, the Latin American nation had only been an occasional source for China. Colombian steam coal exports to China nearly doubled from a year earlier to reach 2.8 million metric tonnes in the first eight months of the year. China’s share of Colombia’s metallurgical coal shipments rose to 21%, from 0.6% in 2019.

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The Colombian Ministry of Mines and Energy has estimated that coal production could increase by up to 50% this year from 2020. Juan Miguel Durán, president of the National Association of Mines of Colombia, said that the The boon to the South American nation is expected to last for years because demand from economies rebounding from the pandemic exceeds global capacity to transition to greener energy. Colombian coal production continues to attract strong interest from Chinese, Indian, Japanese and Korean investors, he said.

“We are in a window of opportunity from which we must take advantage and expand our mining potential,” said Mr. Durán.

At the end of August, Colombian Natural Resources, the country’s fourth largest producer, reactivated processing facilities it had closed last year due to low prices and the pandemic. But the replacement equipment to increase supply requires at least six months to a year to be put in place, said Mr. Consunji of Semirara.

“Last year’s prices were so low that no one could make any money, so we postponed purchasing more replacement equipment,” Consunji said. “But there will be a lag before the offer comes back.”

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AfDB to launch funds to help shut down coal-fired power plants https://const-japan.com/afdb-to-launch-funds-to-help-shut-down-coal-fired-power-plants/ Wed, 06 Oct 2021 09:00:00 +0000 https://const-japan.com/afdb-to-launch-funds-to-help-shut-down-coal-fired-power-plants/ MANILA – The Asian Development Bank plans to create funds, perhaps next year, to facilitate early shutdowns of coal-fired power plants in Southeast Asia. The multilateral lender will buy these factories and play an active role in their management. In collaboration with governments and financial institutions, the AfDB plans to launch funds in countries like […]]]>

MANILA – The Asian Development Bank plans to create funds, perhaps next year, to facilitate early shutdowns of coal-fired power plants in Southeast Asia. The multilateral lender will buy these factories and play an active role in their management.

In collaboration with governments and financial institutions, the AfDB plans to launch funds in countries like Indonesia that rely heavily on coal for power generation, with the aim of accelerating their transition to a low-emission economy. of carbon.

“To coincide with the United Nations COP26 climate summit, the AfDB will review its energy policy. For starters, we will stop giving loans to build new coal-fired power plants. end of their life cycle, ”AfDB President Masatsugu Asakawa said in an exclusive interview with Nikkei. COP26 will open at the end of October in Glasgow, Scotland.

The funds will be financed by government grants and long-term loans at low interest rates and will seek investments from financial institutions. It is believed that several lenders are showing interest. The AfDB aims to set up a fund to buy power plants and another to promote renewable energy in Southeast Asia. He has started consultations with governments and utilities in coal-dependent countries such as Indonesia, the Philippines and Vietnam.

Asakawa did not disclose the size of the funds, but they could be huge. Coal-fired power plants can cost over 300 billion yen ($ 2.7 billion), depending on their production capacity. The first purchase is scheduled for 2022 or 2023.

“Asia accounts for around 60% of global greenhouse gas emissions. It is also vulnerable to natural disasters triggered by climate change. The AfDB has set itself the goal of investing $ 80 billion in climate change projects between 2019 and 2030, ”Asakawa said. .

Asian Development Bank President Masatsugu Asakawa (Photo courtesy of AfDB)

Coal-fired power plants are typically designed to operate for 30 and 40 years. The AfDB hopes that by purchasing the power plants, it can shorten the time needed for utilities to recover their capital and depreciation costs, so that they “can be shut down sooner, even by five or ten years”. Asakawa said.

Coal-fired power plants account for nearly 40% of global electricity production, according to the International Energy Agency. This proportion is highest in the Asia-Pacific region, at around 60%. Reducing dependence on coal will help transform the region into a low carbon society. Asia accounts for about 80% of global coal consumption.

If Indonesia, the Philippines and Vietnam replace half of their coal-fired power plants with plants powered by renewable energy, their greenhouse gas emissions would decrease by about 200 million tonnes per year, which is equivalent to to take 61 million conventional vehicles off the road.

The obstacles to such a change in Asia remain high. Coal is a major energy source for many emerging economies in Asia due to its relatively abundant supplies. Renewable energies have a low environmental impact, but the power output varies depending on the weather and time of day. If a rushed switch to clean energy results in power shortages, it could hamper efforts to develop industries in fast-growing emerging economies. To achieve a low carbon society, ensuring a stable power supply is essential.

Asakawa became AfDB president in January 2020 after his predecessor, Takehiko Nakao, stepped down before completing his five-year term. Asakawa’s second term will begin in November.

Asakawa said he has been busy responding to the coronavirus pandemic since taking office. “We have allocated a $ 20 billion relief plan to directly supplement the public finances of emerging economies. We have also launched a $ 9 billion vaccine initiative,” he said. “But even when countries have funds, the establishment of vaccine deployment frameworks is sometimes delayed. We aim to play a role in improving deployment capacities in Asia.”

In addition to infrastructure development, the AfDB recently issued its very first “blue bonds” to finance projects to protect the marine environment. Japanese companies Dai-ichi Life Insurance and Meiji Yasuda Life Insurance bought the bonds. “In addition to the responses to the coronavirus, the AfDB hopes to implement projects that will help fight poverty and climate change,” Asakawa said.

China has promoted its “Belt and Road” initiative, which aims to create a vast economic zone stretching from Asia to Europe. But many emerging economies are grappling with inflated debts to China, and the amount of those debts remains uncertain. “Internationally, we have the Paris Club, a group of major creditors that includes Japan, the United States and Europe. China and other “emerging creditors” need to be integrated into multinational frameworks. It is also important to persuade private sector lenders to get actively involved in these issues, ”AfDB President said.


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Automotive HVAC Market Size, Growth and Key Companies – Johnson Electric, Japan Climate Systems Corporation, Hanon Systems, Engineered Plastic Components, Denso Corporation, DelStar Technologies https://const-japan.com/automotive-hvac-market-size-growth-and-key-companies-johnson-electric-japan-climate-systems-corporation-hanon-systems-engineered-plastic-components-denso-corporation-delstar-technologies/ Tue, 05 Oct 2021 19:13:39 +0000 https://const-japan.com/automotive-hvac-market-size-growth-and-key-companies-johnson-electric-japan-climate-systems-corporation-hanon-systems-engineered-plastic-components-denso-corporation-delstar-technologies/ New Jersey, United States, – The report provides an overview of Automotive HVAC Market and offers a detailed analysis of the industry. It includes a comprehensive analysis of the regions and the competitors associated with the market. The report offers an overview of the current market scenario along with precise estimates of the growth of […]]]>

New Jersey, United States, – The report provides an overview of Automotive HVAC Market and offers a detailed analysis of the industry. It includes a comprehensive analysis of the regions and the competitors associated with the market. The report offers an overview of the current market scenario along with precise estimates of the growth of the industry. The report is a comprehensive document that covers drivers, restraints, challenges, emerging trends, consumption patterns, price analysis and market view. Besides these details, the report also covers SWOT analysis, market scenario and feasibility analysis.

The automotive HVAC market was valued at USD 18.17 billion in 2020 and is expected to reach USD 33.35 billion by 2028, with a CAGR of 7.9% from 2021 to 2028.

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Additionally, the report provides insightful information on key manufacturers and players as well as the industry. It includes data on the latest trade movements, product launches, technological advancements, mergers and acquisitions, partnerships and joint ventures. The report also provides in-depth assessment of production and manufacturing capacity, industry chain analysis, market share, size, revenue, growth rate and market share. The report also includes market assessment and CAGR to provide a comprehensive portrait of the Automotive HVAC market.

The report covers an in-depth analysis of the major market players in the market, along with their business overview, expansion plans, and strategies. The major players studied in the report include:

Johnson Electric, Japan Climate Systems Corporation, Hanon Systems, Engineered Plastic Components, Denso Corporation, DelStar Technologies, Delphi Automotive, Calsonic Kansei, Brose Fahrzeugteile GmbH & Co. Kg, Air International Thermal Systems.

Automotive HVAC Market Segmentation

Automotive HVAC Market, By Technology

• Manual
• Automatique

Automotive HVAC Market, By Vehicle

• Heavy utility vehicle
• Light commercial vehicle
• Passenger cars

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Scope of Automotive HVAC Market Report

ATTRIBUTE DETAILS
ESTIMATED YEAR 2021
YEAR OF REFERENCE 2020
PLANNED YEAR 2028
HISTORICAL YEAR 2019
UNITY Value (million USD / billion)
COVERED SEGMENTS Types, applications, end users, etc.
COVER OF THE REPORT Revenue forecast, company ranking, competitive landscape, growth factors and trends
BY REGION North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, Latin America, Middle East and Africa
CUSTOMIZATION SCOPE Free customization of the report (equivalent to 4 working days for analysts) with purchase. Add or change the scope of country, region and segment.

Geographic segment covered in the report:

Automotive HVAC report provides information about the market area, which is further subdivided into sub-regions and countries / regions. In addition to the market share in each country and sub-region, this chapter of this report also contains information on profit opportunities. This chapter of the report mentions the market share and growth rate of each region, country and sub-region during the estimated period.

• North America (United States and Canada)
• Europe (UK, Germany, France and rest of Europe)
• Asia-Pacific (China, Japan, India and the rest of the Asia-Pacific region)
• Latin America (Brazil, Mexico and the rest of Latin America)
• Middle East and Africa (GCC and rest of Middle East and Africa)

Key questions answered in the report:

• What is the growth potential of the automotive HVAC market?
• Which product segment will take the lion’s share?
• Which regional market will emerge as a pioneer in the years to come?
• Which application segment will experience strong growth?
• What growth opportunities might arise in the automotive HVAC industry in the years to come?
• What are the most significant challenges facing the Automotive HVAC Market in the future?
• Who are the leading companies in the automotive HVAC market?
• What are the main trends that positively impact the growth of the market?
• What growth strategies are the players considering to stay in the Automotive HVAC market?

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Demand for fossil fuels shakes pandemic to the detriment of climate action https://const-japan.com/demand-for-fossil-fuels-shakes-pandemic-to-the-detriment-of-climate-action/ Tue, 05 Oct 2021 03:20:54 +0000 https://const-japan.com/demand-for-fossil-fuels-shakes-pandemic-to-the-detriment-of-climate-action/ Demand for coal and natural gas has surpassed pre-COVID-19 highs, with oil not far behind, reducing hope that the pandemic would accelerate a faster transition to clean energy from fuels fossils. Global natural gas shortages, record gas and coal prices, an electricity crisis in China and a three-year record high in oil prices tell a […]]]>

Demand for coal and natural gas has surpassed pre-COVID-19 highs, with oil not far behind, reducing hope that the pandemic would accelerate a faster transition to clean energy from fuels fossils.

Global natural gas shortages, record gas and coal prices, an electricity crisis in China and a three-year record high in oil prices tell a story: demand for energy has exploded and the world has exploded. still need fossil fuels to meet most of these energy needs. .

“The drop in demand during the pandemic was entirely linked to governments’ decision to restrict movement and had nothing to do with the energy transition,” said Cuneyt Kazokoglu, head of oil demand analysis at FGE.

“Energy transition and decarbonization are strategies that last a decade and do not happen overnight. “

More than three-quarters of global energy demand is still met by fossil fuels and less than a fifth by non-nuclear renewables, according to energy watchdog, International Energy Agency .

Energy transition policies are criticized for soaring energy prices. In some places they are having an impact, such as in Europe where high carbon prices aimed at reducing emissions have made utilities reluctant to fire coal plants to make up for the shortage.

In China, emission reduction policies have contributed to the government’s decision to ration energy to heavy industry.

But much of the rise in energy prices is simply due to the fact that producers took huge amounts of capacity offline last year when the pandemic caused an unprecedented drop in demand.

Several factors mean that temporary shortages may not last.

They could ease with an OPEC decision to turn on the taps to release the supply it held back in the first COVID-19 assault, likely new production of liquid natural gas (LNG) to come after a drop in prices over the past decade and a rise in the Chinese government – lower pricing that has undermined coal-fired power generation.

Drivers line up for gasoline as panic shopping continues in London on September 29. | REUTERS

Producers of gas, coal and, to a lesser extent, oil have been caught off guard by the economic recovery, largely triggered by government stimulus spending in energy-intensive industries.

National policies have also played a role in the problems of electricity supply. In China, state-imposed electricity prices mean utilities simply cannot afford to burn coal and sell electricity because the cost of coal is too high to make a profit.

Chinese utilities are producing below capacity to avoid losing money, not because they cannot produce more.

Meanwhile, most gas projects take several years to design and build, so the scarcity now reflects investment decisions made before the pandemic – and before the energy transition gained political momentum.

The head of the Paris-based IEA said energy transition policies were not to blame for the crisis.

“Well-managed clean energy transitions are a solution to the problems we see in the gas and electricity markets today – not the cause of them,” Fatih Birol said in a statement.

Yet IEA data shows global demand for coal, the largest source of carbon dioxide emissions, has exceeded pre-pandemic levels late last year.

Global coal supplies are tight because China, responsible for about half of global production, tightened mine safety rules after a series of accidents, undermining the supply.

This left China to import more coal from Indonesia, in turn leaving less for other importers such as India.

Global demand for coal is expected to grow 4.5% this year, exceeding 2019 levels.

Global demand for natural gas fell 1.9% last year, a smaller drop than for other energy sources, as utilities increased electricity production to meet winter heating needs.

But the IEA predicts that gas demand will rise 3.2 percent in 2021 to over 4 trillion cubic meters, wiping out 2020 losses and pushing demand above 2019 levels.

The cold weather conditions in the northern hemisphere, said Rystad Energy, an Oslo-based consultancy, “have caused an increase in demand for coal, liquefied natural gas (LNG), electricity and even some gas. oil (which) is here to stay “.

LNG accounts for just over 10% of global supply, but it is more easily marketed globally and therefore can be deployed more easily to cover short-term supply shortages.

“The impressive price spikes and their gap between summer and winter will widen, especially for gas, both natural and liquefied,” Rystad added, as prices are higher in winter than in summer.

Last to catch up, demand for oil is expected to rebound to pre-pandemic levels of over 100 million barrels a day next year, according to four of the major monitoring groups.

The high prices in the oil markets are due to the fact that OPEC and allied producers still have millions of barrels per day of oil production offline after making record cuts in supply during the pandemic to respond to the falling demand for transportation fuel.

The OPEC producer club offers the most robust forecast for a rebound in demand, placing the recovery date in the second quarter of 2022.

In the more distant future, with most forecasters predicting a peak in demand for fossil fuels over the next two decades and the IEA advising against new projects to ensure net zero emissions, larger supply gaps could fuel more. price shocks.

“Fossil fuel prices will remain volatile,” said Nikos Tsafos, senior researcher at the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS).

“The risk of a supply-demand imbalance is greater in a contracting market where the case for further investment is weak, which could produce short-term rallies.”

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Wesfarmers and Mitsui envision more than $ 1 billion in low-carbon ammonia export WA https://const-japan.com/wesfarmers-and-mitsui-envision-more-than-1-billion-in-low-carbon-ammonia-export-wa/ Sun, 03 Oct 2021 22:18:33 +0000 https://const-japan.com/wesfarmers-and-mitsui-envision-more-than-1-billion-in-low-carbon-ammonia-export-wa/ “Big Oil’s last stance will be to use fossil fuels to create blue hydrogen,” Dr. Forrest said in September. Researchers at Stanford and Cornell universities recently questioned the climate benefits of blue hydrogen. They concluded that the energy required to capture and store the carbon dioxide emitted by conventional hydrogen production, as well as the […]]]>

“Big Oil’s last stance will be to use fossil fuels to create blue hydrogen,” Dr. Forrest said in September.

Researchers at Stanford and Cornell universities recently questioned the climate benefits of blue hydrogen. They concluded that the energy required to capture and store the carbon dioxide emitted by conventional hydrogen production, as well as the emissions of methane, a more harmful greenhouse gas, made the combustion of blue hydrogen worse for the climate than the simple combustion of gas.

While the study drew criticism for using overly conservative assumptions, it highlighted the difficulty of producing hydrogen completely without emissions from gas.

The consortium aims to significantly reduce – rather than eliminate – greenhouse gas emissions.

One possible approach would be to capture and store the carbon dioxide emitted when the hydrogen is separated from the gas, but allow the emissions of the flue gas to feed the process to vent to the atmosphere.

A spokesperson for Mitsui said the three partners would work with customers, the WA government and the Midwestern community “to determine a credible path to decarbonization.”

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“Although the Mid-West is an important part of this assessment process given our existing investments in the region, no decision has been made on a location for ammonia production or carbon storage,” Mitsui spokesperson said.

The Waitsia joint venture is required to store or offset 180,000 tonnes of carbon dioxide that will flow out of the reservoir when Waitsia’s second stage begins production in 2023.

In May, Mitsui bought offsets developer Outback Carbon which could help develop offsets for Waitsia’s gas production and any future ammonia facility.

Wesfarmers Chemicals, Energy and Fertilizers (WesCEF) continues to expand its ammonia production in WA separately from its agreement with Mitsui and JOGMEC.

WesCEF’s CSBP plant in Kwinana can produce 225,000 tonnes of ammonia per year for sale and to manufacture fertilizers, explosive ammonium nitrate and sodium cyanide which are mainly used for processing gold.

The possible extension, revealed in a local content plan filed with the federal government in June, aims to duplicate the existing plant at the Kwinana site at a cost of more than $ 500 million. The French engineer Technip carries out the technical design of the front end.

The capacity and cost of WesCEF’s expansion at Kwinana indicate that a new one million-ton-per-year ammonia plant would cost well over $ 1 billion.

Mr. Hansen said that WesCEF would advance Kwinana’s expansion and study with Mitsui and JOGMEC in parallel, as separate opportunities that would be assessed on their individual merits.

Beach Energy, which owns the remaining 50 percent of Waitsia, will export its share of Waitsia gas through the North West Shelf LNG plant after controversially receiving a five-year exemption from the state government ban of Washington to export gas ashore. In September, BP signed to take all LNG from Beach starting in 2023.

Mitsui, co-owner of the North West Shelf project, could also choose to produce LNG until an ammonia plant is developed.


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Japan’s position on China and Taiwan’s CPTPP candidacies – the diplomat https://const-japan.com/japans-position-on-china-and-taiwans-cptpp-candidacies-the-diplomat/ Sun, 03 Oct 2021 00:56:15 +0000 https://const-japan.com/japans-position-on-china-and-taiwans-cptpp-candidacies-the-diplomat/ Advertising China announced last month that it would apply to join the Comprehensive and Progressive Trade and Peaceful Partnership Agreement (CPTPP). It was quickly followed by Taiwan. With the UK already applying for membership, the CPTPP has reached an important crossroads. Will it now allow itself to become a significantly larger free trade framework? With […]]]>

China announced last month that it would apply to join the Comprehensive and Progressive Trade and Peaceful Partnership Agreement (CPTPP). It was quickly followed by Taiwan. With the UK already applying for membership, the CPTPP has reached an important crossroads. Will it now allow itself to become a significantly larger free trade framework?

With China and Taiwan, this issue is even more politicized than usual. Membership for both would be very loaded in terms of domestic policy. For this reason, joining is not an easy task. So why apply for membership?

Beijing had already declared its support for free trade, and President Xi Jinping and Prime Minister Li Keqiang have already talked about membership, so in a sense it’s an established policy. The question, however, was the timing. On the 100th anniversary of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) on July 1, 2021, Xi said China has achieved a “moderately prosperous society in all respects,” a statement that the problem of poverty has been eradicated. The next goal, which has not been presented, is apparently “common prosperity”. By promoting further socio-economic reforms and joining the CPTPP, China’s intention may be to join this powerful free trade framework to promote common prosperity policies, including monopoly control. Additionally, by joining a free trade framework that does not include the United States, China could aim to play a leadership role in non-WTO global free trade frameworks, such as the Partnership. Comprehensive Regional Economic (RCEP) and other free trade agreements.

China’s candidacy is primarily a matter for the president of the CPTPP. In 2021, it’s Japan, followed by Singapore and New Zealand. These last two countries are a little more open to Chinese membership than Japan is.

As for Taiwan, it had previously given a number of indications that it would apply to become a member of the CPTPP. The CPTPP is basically an economic and trade framework under the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), and since Taiwan is a member of APEC as Chinese Taipei, it is procedurally possible for Taiwan to apply to become a member of the APEC. CPTPP. However, China has become increasingly vigilant of the policies of the administration of the Progressive Democratic Party of Tsai Ing-wen, which Beijing sees as reinforcing Taiwan’s tendency towards independence, and it has strongly criticized Taiwan’s candidacy for membership in the CPTPP, claiming that it violates the “one-China policy”, among other principles. Indeed, if China manages to join first, it will be able to oppose Taiwan’s accession. Even if it is ahead of Taiwan in the accession negotiations, China may create difficulties by claiming that Taiwan is part of China.

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For its part, Taiwanese citizens are extremely sensitive to food issues, and referendums have suspended imports from Fukushima and other parts of Japan. It will make it a challenge for the Tsai administration to gain the support of the various organizations associated with Japan’s primary industry. Moreover, with the electoral season about to begin, the application of the CPTPP could be damaging for the Tsai administration. This is probably why Taiwan was reluctant to apply in the first place. In the end, however, China’s candidacy was enough to prompt Tsai to relocate. Yet the negotiations represent a difficult road to travel.

For China, too, the negotiations will not be easy. In particular, the reform of state-owned enterprises and the elimination of domestic regulations are just two of a multitude of aspects that conflict with China’s socialist system. The most valuable aspect for Beijing is to show the country and the rest of the world that it has applied for membership and that it is engaged in ongoing membership negotiations. This may also be true for the Tsai administration. For now, the fact that Taiwan has applied for membership and is advancing in negotiations is important in itself.

Regarding their position on the nominations, CPTPP members are divided. The CPTPP operates on unanimous consent, so if even a country is against an application, membership will not be granted. Australia has already made it clear that it opposes China’s bid. The Japanese government too, while welcoming Taiwan’s candidacy, reacted negatively to China’s candidacy. Since the recent LDP presidential election in Japan will be followed by a general election to the lower house, debates over diplomacy and security tend to be somewhat simplistic and uncompromising. However, when the election season ends in November, the new Japanese government, which we know will now be led by Kishida Fumio, will have to come up with a new diplomatic strategy not only for the United States and China, but for a tumultuous world in general.

What position will Japan take on the CPTPP? The United States is using climate change as an opportunity to cooperate with China. Likewise, if the Japanese government can seize this rare opportunity of China’s candidacy to join the CPTPP to strengthen its dialogue with China, and if it can occasionally show a willingness to engage in dialogue and discussion on the system. China’s socio-economic and other CPTPP-related issues, the new Kishida government will benefit from a significantly expanded diplomatic scope. The same goes for Taiwan. China’s inevitable opposition to Taiwan’s membership means that Japan cannot secure Taiwan’s membership on its own. The Japanese government will need to engage in dialogue and coordination with Taiwan and other member countries, moving more cautiously and at the same time more boldly than ever before.


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UK seeks alliance to end public funding of overseas coal, oil and gas projects https://const-japan.com/uk-seeks-alliance-to-end-public-funding-of-overseas-coal-oil-and-gas-projects/ Fri, 01 Oct 2021 10:09:58 +0000 https://const-japan.com/uk-seeks-alliance-to-end-public-funding-of-overseas-coal-oil-and-gas-projects/ Cop26 hosts try to form a coalition of countries to align public finances with a 1.5 ° C global warming limit, the most difficult goal of the Paris Agreement The UK government is working to launch a coalition of countries and financial institutions committed to ending public funding of fossil fuels overseas during the UN […]]]>

Cop26 hosts try to form a coalition of countries to align public finances with a 1.5 ° C global warming limit, the most difficult goal of the Paris Agreement

The UK government is working to launch a coalition of countries and financial institutions committed to ending public funding of fossil fuels overseas during the UN climate talks in Glasgow in November.

The host of Cop26 has repeatedly said he wants the summit to “put coal to history” and worked with Italy to seek an agreement between major economies to end energy relentlessly charcoal.

But the UK’s ambition goes beyond coal. It seeks to build an alliance of nations and institutions ready to commit to ending funding for oil and gas projects internationally.

The UK is working with the European Investment Bank (EIB) to convince developed and developing countries as well as major financial institutions such as multilateral development banks to sign a declaration on aligning public finances with the acceleration of the transition to clean energies.

They call on donors and lenders to prioritize support for clean energy, end public funding for fossil fuels, and push others to do the same. Climate Home News understands that the UK hopes to launch the statement at the energy day at Cop26 on November 4.

In a commentary article published in Project Syndicate on Friday, John Murton, the UK government’s envoy to Cop26, and Werner Hoyer, chairman of the EIB, wrote that at Cop26 “governments and financial institutions must commit to supporting cheaper, cleaner, no-regrets energy. , and to end all international support for fossil fuel energy ”.

“This shouldn’t be too difficult, given that many legacy energy investments will inevitably become stranded assets,” they said, adding that “the cost of inaction would be catastrophic.”

from China Power crisis could fuel anti-climate backlash, analysts warn

As of March of this year, the UK has ended all direct government support for the extraction, production, transportation and refining of crude oil, natural gas or thermal coal internationally. Under certain limited circumstances, it will still support gas-fired power plants if it aligns with a long-term path of 1.5 ° C.

In 2019, the EIB, the world’s largest development bank, announced that it would stop funding oil and gas projects relentlessly by the end of 2021 as part of a major overhaul of its lending policy. .

While there is a broad consensus that funding for coal must end, the end of support for oil and particularly gas is much more politically sensitive.

In a letter last month to Cop26 boss Alok Sharma seen by Climate Home News, activists from more than 200 organizations called for strict restrictions on all fossil fuels, including gas. They argue that renewables are cost competitive and can meet the electricity and clean cooking needs of the Global South.

Source: Step Off the Gas / IISD report

But gas dominates international energy financing flows from multilateral development banks (MDBs) and G20 countries. From 2017 to 2019, low- and middle-income countries received on average nearly $ 16 billion in international public funding per year, four times more than wind or solar, according to the International Institute for Sustainable Development ( IISD).

The United States was the third largest donor of gas after China and Japan, contributing an average of $ 2.4 billion per year to financing gas abroad.

Jake Schmidt, who heads the international climate program at the Washington-based Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC), told Climate Home that the United States should be able to adhere to the declaration before Cop26, but that language on the end of gas financing could be controversial.

On expert opinion, South Africa cuts its emissions cap by a third for 2030

Last month, the US Treasury asked its representatives in the MDBs to exclude all support for gas, coal and oil production along the value chain.

The policy allows investments in gas infrastructure to continue in fragile and conflict-affected countries and small island developing states if analysis shows that there is no feasible clean energy alternative and that the project would have a significant positive impact on access to energy, which gives more leeway than the British position.

“I don’t think the United States will adhere to anything more aggressive than its own guidelines,” Schmidt said.

Joe Biden’s administration is expected to issue more guidance on how the United States “can promote an end to international financing of carbon-intensive fossil fuel energy” before Cop26. The State Department will likely wait until the announcement is made before committing to the international stage, Schmidt added.

And Washington DC isn’t the only one likely to negotiate the language around gas. German public development bank KfW will continue to support gas projects and some oil and diesel power plants on a case-by-case basis, with support limited by quotas until 2029, in line with guidelines that came into effect on September 1.

Some developing countries like Nigeria are likely to defend gas financing. About 43% of Nigeria’s 200 million people do not have access to the electricity grid, making it the country with the largest energy access deficit in the world, according to the World Bank.

The country’s Environment Minister Mohammad Mahmood Abubakar told a UN meeting in June that an international crackdown on gas financing threatens sub-Saharan Africa’s ability to achieve a just energy transition and fair.

Chukwumerije Okereke, Nigerian professor of environment and development, told Climate Home that the government is supporting increased gas production to meet energy demand.

“As we encourage rural people to stop cooking with wood and switch to gas and the government tries to increase the energy supply to the population, the international community is ending investments in gas. while donor countries still use gas. this. This is not my definition of climate justice, ”he said.

Okereke said any initiative to cut emissions must take development needs into account. “Otherwise, it’s not going to fly,” he said, adding that investments in renewables on the continent were still insufficient.


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