Crime in japan – Const Japan http://const-japan.com/ Mon, 09 May 2022 18:55:30 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.9.3 https://const-japan.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/07/icon-2021-07-05T131502.299-150x150.png Crime in japan – Const Japan http://const-japan.com/ 32 32 Canada’s criminal laws now extend to Earth’s orbit and the Moon https://const-japan.com/canadas-criminal-laws-now-extend-to-earths-orbit-and-the-moon/ Mon, 09 May 2022 18:55:30 +0000 https://const-japan.com/canadas-criminal-laws-now-extend-to-earths-orbit-and-the-moon/ In this decade and the next, astronauts will go into space like never before. This will include missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) for the first time in over fifty years, renewed missions to the Moon, and crewed missions to Mars. Beyond that, new space stations will be deployed to replace the aging International Space […]]]>

In this decade and the next, astronauts will go into space like never before. This will include missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) for the first time in over fifty years, renewed missions to the Moon, and crewed missions to Mars. Beyond that, new space stations will be deployed to replace the aging International Space Station (ISS), and there are even plans to establish permanent human outposts on the lunar and Martian surfaces.

In anticipation of humanity’s growing presence in space and all that it will entail, jurists and authorities around the world are seeking to extend the laws of the Earth into space. In a recent decision, the Canadian government introduced legislation extending Canada’s criminal code to the Moon. The amendment was part of the Budget Implementation Act (a 443-page document) tabled and passed late last month in the Canadian House of Commons.

The Criminal Code of Canada already takes into account astronauts who may commit crimes during space flights to LEO and stays on board the ISS. By law, any crime committed is considered to have been committed on Canadian soil. But with the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) being part of the Lunar Gateway project, the federal government decided to amend the Criminal Code to extend these laws to cis-lunar space and the lunar surface.

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An Orion spacecraft approaching the Lunar Gateway in orbit around the Moon. Credit: NASA

Extend the Criminal Code

The change was included in Part 5, Division 18 of the document, titled “Civil Lunar Gateway Agreement Implementation Act.” This section constitutes a memorandum of understanding between the Canadian and US governments regarding cooperation on the Lunar Gateway. Under the current Criminal Code, the law states that:

“[A] A Canadian crew member who, during space flight, commits an act or omission outside Canada that, if committed in Canada, would constitute an indictable offense shall be deemed to have committed that act or omission in Canada, if such act or omission is committed: (a) on or in connection with a flight element of the Space Station; or (b) on any means of transportation to or from the Space Station.

A similar provision is made for crew members from “Partner States”, in reference to NASA, ESA, JAXA, Roscosmos (formerly) and any other national space agency participating in the ISS. According to the new amendment, the law now applies to any act or omission committed on the Lunar Gateway, during transportation to or from the Lunar Gateway, or on the surface of the Moon. In short, if you commit a crime anywhere between the Earth and the Moon, you will be charged under Canadian law!

space law

There are currently five international treaties governing activities in outer space, all of which are overseen by the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (UNOOSA). The most important of these is the Outer Space Treaty, signed in 1967 by the United States, the Soviet Union and the United Kingdom, and since ratified by more than 100 countries (including Canada) . This treaty remains the most relevant legal agreement regarding issues of sovereignty and dealing with alleged crimes in outer space.

The International Space Station in orbit around the Earth. Credit: NASA

In addition, the 15 governments that are part of the ISS program are bound by the Intergovernmental Agreement on the International Space Station (IGA), an intergovernmental legal framework drafted between 1994 and 1998. The section dealing with criminal jurisdiction (Article 22) states that “Canada, the European Partner States, Japan, Russia and the United States may exercise criminal jurisdiction over personnel in or over any element of flight who are their respective nationals.

However, if the victim of a crime was a citizen of another partner country or in the ISS section of that country, its penal code could apply. As the document states, in these cases:

“In a case involving a fault [in] orbit which: (a) affects the life or safety of a national of another Partner State or (b) occurs in or on or causes damage to the flight element of another Partner State, the Partner State whose national is the alleged perpetrator shall, at the request of any Partner State concerned, consult with that State regarding their respective interests in the prosecution”.

The question of space law arose in 2019 when NASA conducted the first criminal investigation into a crime committed in space. The alleged crime involved astronaut Anne McClain, who was accused by her ex-husband of accessing their bank statements during her six-month stay on the ISS. The investigation cleared McClain of any wrongdoing and his ex-wife (Summer Worden) was charged with making false statements to federal authorities.

Artist’s impression of Canadarm3’s large arm on the Lunar Gateway. Credits: CSA/NASA

The case raised awareness of issues that could arise in the near future and that the current state of space law was not equipped to deal with them. In addition, there are growing concerns about legal agreements and liability arising from disputes over mega-satellite constellations, asteroid mining and the commercialization of space. According to Ram Jakhu, a professor at the Institute of Air and Space Law at McGill University, these crimes could extend to:

“[M]in space, the hijacking of a space transport vehicle and the detonation of a nuclear device in space. It would be logical and imperative that such rules be the same for all humans traveling in space, regardless of whether they hold different Earth nationalities.

Canada and Artemis

As part of the Artemis program, the Lunar Gateway is essential for conducting regular missions on the lunar surface and establishing the Artemis base camp. It’s also a key part of NASA’s plan to send crewed missions to Mars over the next decade. The core elements of this modular space station – the Power and Propulsion Element (PPE) and the Habitation and Logic Outpost (HALO) – are currently scheduled to be launched into lunar orbit by 2024.

This amendment is consistent with the treaty signed by CSA and NASA in December 2020 that confirmed Canada’s participation in the Lunar Gateway. This treaty also confirmed that Canada will be part of the Artemis II mission (scheduled for May 2024), which will see a crew of four perform a circumlunar flight before returning to Earth. Having a Canadian astronaut on board this flight will make Canada the second country in the world to send an astronaut to the Moon.

Illustration of the flight path of the Artemis II mission. Credit: NASA

Additionally, the Canadian government reaffirmed its financial commitment to the Lunar Gateway with the passage of the Budget Implementation Act. Among the many provisions, the budget recognizes the $1.9 billion commitment (announced in Budget 2019) over 24 years to build and integrate Canadarm 3 as part of the Lunar Gateway. Its predecessors (Canadarm and Canadarm 2) were featured on the Space Shuttle and the ISS (respectively). Both have proven invaluable in the construction and maintenance of the ISS and in the docking and undocking of spacecraft.

This latest robotic arm consists of an 8.5-meter (~28-foot) main arm, a smaller, more dexterous arm, and a set of removable tools. It is also highly autonomous and incorporates state-of-the-art robotics and software to perform tasks that will aid science operations on and around the Moon without human intervention. In particular, it will be responsible for docking spacecraft from Earth and transferring vehicles to the Deep Space Transport (DST), which will one day be used to transport astronauts to Mars.

With all of these activities on the horizon, it’s no wonder governments and space agencies are keen to establish binding legal frameworks that apply far beyond Earth’s jurisdictions.

Further reading: Radio-Canada

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Tokyo Vice Review | TV show https://const-japan.com/tokyo-vice-review-tv-show/ Sat, 07 May 2022 12:20:56 +0000 https://const-japan.com/tokyo-vice-review-tv-show/ Tokyo, 1999. Recent American graduate Jake Adelstein (Elgort) gets a job as a crime reporter at a major Japanese newspaper, the paper’s first foreign-born reporter. With the help of a veteran detective (Watanabe) and a local “hostess” (Keller), he quickly finds himself embroiled in a seething criminal network run by the yakuza. Broadcast on: Starzplay […]]]>

Tokyo, 1999. Recent American graduate Jake Adelstein (Elgort) gets a job as a crime reporter at a major Japanese newspaper, the paper’s first foreign-born reporter. With the help of a veteran detective (Watanabe) and a local “hostess” (Keller), he quickly finds himself embroiled in a seething criminal network run by the yakuza.

Broadcast on: Starzplay

Watched episodes: 2 out of 8

The story of a fearless journalist in the face of the malignity of organized crime is not new territory. Yet the concentrated power of Deputy Tokyo, the new detective series starring Ansel Elgort and Ken Watanabe among a constellation of excellent supporting cast, is such that the material seems alive with intrigue, detail and dark wit. It’s as visually appealing as it is clever, from the footage of its opening credits – complete with close-ups of curvy motion yakuza tattoos – to its pilot episode, which was directed by executive producer and filmmaker Michael Mann.

A shaggy-haired Elgort is Jake Adelstein, a true crime reporter who transferred from the University of Missouri to study in Japan in the 90s and never left, becoming the first foreign employee of one of Tokyo’s most prominent newspapers, Yomiuri Shimbun. Adelstein’s memoirs served as raw material for Deputy Tokyo, and we have the impression that his job at the newspaper was not an initially popular decision. Jake’s boss often scolds him, yelling “Gaijin(“Stranger!”) across the newsroom, and he starts there doing the work of hacking a petty crime: purse thieves, pickpockets, and local perverts.

When a fatal stabbing and a recent suicide both appear to have mysterious connective tissue that no one in authority wants to admit, Jake takes it upon himself to start digging deeper. In this work, he meets a number of ambiguous characters, from the vice-cool cop Miyamoto (Hideako Itō, perfectly terse when saying things like “There’s are no murders in Japan”) to an enigmatic detective played by Ken Watanabe, or the tough-faced, young yakuza young Sato (Shô Kasamatsu), who shares a surprising love for American coaches. What soon becomes clear is that publicly admitting the existence of organized crime in Japan is considered fundamentally unacceptable: so how can a gaijin print it in a newspaper?

Tokyo Vice takes admirable care of the pacing and presentation of its many threads.

In the first episode, Mann’s constantly roving handheld camera follows Jake closely through the city streets, his sparkling crosscuts hinting at the protagonist’s lively, active mind. Created and written for television by Tony-winning playwright JT Rogers, it leaves space for its characters to deliberate and explore, without overloading its episodes with the violent spectacle and OTT plot machinations of so many TV crime sagas.

The show excels at portraying Jake’s adopted home, Tokyo, not just as a blackish puzzle box – which always risks being cartoonish – but also as an ordinary city, with insults playfully exchanged over sake and noodles. That lived-in, naturalistic feel seems to help the actors, too, and Elgort — usually a little too shy on screen — exudes a more engaged and thoughtful energy than he has in the past.

Deputy Tokyo takes admirable care of the pacing and presentation of its many threads, giving the impression of a story that promises to be expansive but never rushed. Instead, in both words and images, it drip feeds a delicious enigma: a misunderstanding that could be a cultural difference or an intentional deception; a wildly tattooed loner yakuza looking curiously lost as he watches children in an arcade shoot toy guns; Jake’s passing mention of his coroner father showing him corpses as a child leaves the audience with many questions about his upbringing. As the dark tentacles of this story slowly unfurl, they can’t help but enclose the viewer, bringing us ever closer to the ambiguity and monstrosity of the city’s criminal backlash.

With style, smarts, and mystery to spare, Tokyo Vice is the kind of sprawling crime drama that lives up to the “prestige” television label.

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Okinawa asks for Tokyo’s help to reduce tensions with China https://const-japan.com/okinawa-asks-for-tokyos-help-to-reduce-tensions-with-china/ Fri, 06 May 2022 10:22:17 +0000 https://const-japan.com/okinawa-asks-for-tokyos-help-to-reduce-tensions-with-china/ TOKYO — Japan should do more for peaceful diplomacy with China and not just focus on deterring weapons as tensions rise around Taiwan west of Okinawa, the prefectural governor of Tokyo said on Friday. South Island, demanding a further reduction in its security burden and risk of hosting the United States military there. “We are […]]]>

“We are greatly alarmed,” Okinawa Governor Denny Tamaki said during discussions in parliament about a possible emergency in Taiwan – particularly on the assumption that Okinawa would be involved due to its relative proximity of 600 kilometers away. (370 miles) east of Taiwan through the East. China Sea.

Instead of a celebratory mood, there are worries about Okinawa, with its heavy burden of hosting US troops amid growing tension in the region from increasingly assertive military actions by China and the its rivalry with the United States. There are also fears that the Russian invasion of Ukraine will embolden China.

In what it calls a warning to Taiwan independence supporters and their foreign allies, China has held threatening drills and flown military jets near the island’s airspace, including on 24 February, the day Russia began its invasion of Ukraine.

Despite this, Chinese officials, including leader Xi Jinping, say they are determined to use peaceful means to bring Taiwan under Beijing’s control.

The United States has always expressed support for ensuring Taiwan can defend itself, and Chinese military action against the island in the short to medium term is generally seen as a remote possibility.

But the lingering tension has reignited fears among Okinawans of being sacrificed again by mainland Japan, such as in the Battle of Okinawa which killed some 200,000 people, half of them local civilians.

“Any escalation of issues over the Taiwan Strait and the possibility of Okinawa being targeted for attack must never happen or be allowed to happen,” Tamaki said.

Noting that China is Japan’s largest trading partner and Japan is China’s second largest, Tamaki said their close economic ties would be indispensable.

“I call on the Japanese government to always maintain calm and peaceful diplomacy and dialogue to improve relations with China, while striving to ease US-China tensions,” he said.

Okinawa at the time of the reversion asked Japan to make it a peaceful island without military bases. Today, he is still burdened with the majority of the roughly 50,000 American troops and their military installations in Japan under the bilateral security treaty.

Due to the concentration of the US military, Okinawa faces daily noise, pollution, plane crashes and crime from US troops and their bases, Tamaki said.

In addition to these “visible problems,” he said, “there are also the problems that hinder Okinawa’s economic development and structural problems. This excessive American basic burden is still unresolved 50 years after reversal”.

Tamaki urged the government to raise awareness of Okinawa’s security overload which he said should be shared by all of Japan.

Okinawa called on Tokyo and Washington last year to gradually halve the US military presence in Okinawa, accelerate the withdrawal of Futenma Air Station from a crowded neighborhood and abandon ongoing construction of runways at Henoko on the east coast, he said.

“Okinawa’s burden on US military bases is a key diplomatic and security issue that concerns all Japanese people. We must return to the basic principle of burden sharing throughout Japan,” he added.

The biggest sticking point between Okinawa and Tokyo is the central government’s insistence on relocating from Futenma to Henoko.

Japan’s central government says the Henoko plan is the only workable plan and has forced it to go ahead despite years of rejection by Okinawans.

While Okinawa’s development projects over the past five decades have helped the economy, Okinawa’s average income has remained the lowest among Japan’s 47 prefectures, Tamaki said.

If land taken by the US military is returned to the prefecture for economic purposes, it would triple US military-related revenue from Okinawa, Tamaki said.

Japan sees China’s military buildup as a regional threat and has increasingly moved its troops to defend outlying islands in the southwest, including Okinawa and its outlying islands, deploying missile defense systems and other facilities, while increasing joint exercises with the U.S. military and other regional partners.

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As US moves to restrict abortion, other countries ease access – Chicago Tribune https://const-japan.com/as-us-moves-to-restrict-abortion-other-countries-ease-access-chicago-tribune/ Wed, 04 May 2022 14:26:00 +0000 https://const-japan.com/as-us-moves-to-restrict-abortion-other-countries-ease-access-chicago-tribune/ BOGOTA, Colombia — As women in the United States are on the verge of losing their constitutional right to abortion, courts in many other parts of the world have taken the opposite direction. This includes in a number of traditionally conservative societies – such as recently in Colombia, where the Constitutional Court in February legalized […]]]>

BOGOTA, Colombia — As women in the United States are on the verge of losing their constitutional right to abortion, courts in many other parts of the world have taken the opposite direction.

This includes in a number of traditionally conservative societies – such as recently in Colombia, where the Constitutional Court in February legalized the procedure up to the 24th week of pregnancy, part of a wider trend seen in parts of the world. strongly Catholic Latin America.

It is not yet known what impact there will be outside the United States of the leaked draft opinion suggesting that the United States Supreme Court could overturn the landmark 1973 Roe v. Wade.

But for activists who for years have campaigned fiercely demanding free access to abortion, often taking the United States as a model, it is a discouraging sign and a reminder that hard-won gains can be fleeting. .

“This is a terrible precedent for the years to come for the region and the world,” said Colombian Catalina Martínez Coral, director for Latin America and the Caribbean at the New York-based Center for Reproductive Rights, which was making part of the groups that have argued the abortion case. before the Colombian high court.

The February decision established a general right for women to have an abortion within the 24-week period, whereas previously they could only do so in specific cases, for example if a fetus had malformations or if one pregnancy resulted from rape. Abortion is still allowed after this period in these special circumstances.

The ruling fell short of advocates’ hopes for full decriminalization, but Martínez Coral said it still left Colombia with the “most progressive legal framework in Latin America.”

Similarly, Mexico’s Supreme Court ruled last year that criminalizing abortion was unconstitutional. As the nation’s highest court, its ruling bars all courts from charging a woman with a felony for terminating a pregnancy.

However, laws banning abortion are still in effect in most of Mexico’s 32 states, and nongovernmental organizations that have long called for decriminalization are lobbying state legislatures to reform them. Abortion was already readily available in Mexico City and some states.

In southern Argentina, lawmakers passed a bill in late 2020 legalizing abortion up to and after the 14th week for circumstances similar to those described in the Colombia ruling.

It is also widely available in Cuba and Uruguay.

But the expansion of access to abortion has not spread to all of Latin America, with many countries limiting it to certain circumstances, such as Brazil, the most populous country in the region, where it does not is allowed only in cases of rape, risk to the woman’s life and certified cases. congenital malformation anencephaly. Former President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, who is seeking re-election in October, recently said he sees legalizing abortion as a public health issue, drawing criticism in a country where few approve of the procedure.

Other places have total bans with no exceptions, such as Honduras, Nicaragua, and El Salvador. Courts in the latter have sentenced women to long prison terms for aggravated homicide, even in cases where prosecutors suspected a miscarriage was actually an abortion.

Many African countries also maintain complete bans, but in October 2021 Benin legalized abortion in most cases up to 12 weeks. This has dramatically increased safe access to the procedure after the Minister of Health reported that nearly 200 women died each year from complications of clandestine abortions. Previously, abortion was permitted in cases of rape or incest; risk to the woman’s life; or severe fetal malformation.

Most European countries have legalized abortion, including predominantly Catholic countries. Ireland did so in 2018, followed by tiny San Marino in an electoral referendum last fall. It remains illegal in Andorra, Malta and Vatican City, while Poland last year tightened its abortion laws.

It has also been widely available in Israel since 1978 and relatively uncontroversial, permitted by law before the 24th week with the approval of hospital “termination committees” made up of medical professionals including at least one woman.

Laws and interpretations vary across the Muslim world.

Abortion has been legal for up to 12 weeks in Tunisia for decades, but in Iran it has been banned since the 1979 Islamic Revolution. Last year the head of Cairo’s main religious institution, Al-Azhar, declared that abortion is not the solution, even in cases where a child is likely to be seriously ill or disabled.

In Japan, abortion is only allowed for economic and health reasons and requires the consent of partners, making Japan one of the few countries in the world to do so. Victims of sexual violence are excluded from the obligation.

While there is a growing call for women to have the right to make their own decision, Japan’s government, led by the ultra-conservative Liberal Democratic Party, has long focused on women’s traditional gender roles to giving birth and raising children.

Japan has not approved abortion pills, although an application from a British company is pending at the Ministry of Health.

Abortion has been legal in India since 1971. Women can terminate a pregnancy for up to 20 weeks, but only on the advice of a doctor. Under changes made in 2021, a woman can also request an abortion for up to 24 weeks under certain circumstances such as rape or incest, although this requires the approval of two doctors.

China is about to limit abortions, but that’s because it has one of the highest abortion rates in the world.

Last September, China’s cabinet, known as the State Council, issued new nationwide guidelines that require hospitals to “reduce non-medically necessary abortions.” In February, the Chinese Family Planning Association announced that it would launch a campaign to reduce teenage abortions.

When the final decision of the United States Supreme Court is delivered, expected in late June or early July, the world will be watching.

“While the steps taken in recent years to decriminalize and legalize abortion in places like Argentina, Ireland, Mexico and Colombia have been a huge victory for the global community,” said Agnes Callamard, Secretary general of the human rights group Amnesty International. a statement, “there are grim signs that the United States is out of step with the progress the rest of the world is making in protecting sexual and reproductive rights.”

Sherman reported from Mexico. Associated Press writers Karl Ritter in Stockholm, Sweden; Almudena Calatrava in Buenos Aires, Argentina; Mauricio Savarese in Rio de Janeiro; Carley Petesch in Dakar, Senegal; Ilan Ben Zion in Jerusalem; Isabel DeBre in Dubai, United Arab Emirates; Mari Yamaguchi in Tokyo; Krutika Pathi in New Delhi; and Huizhong Wu in Taipei, Taiwan contributed to this report.

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Republican hostility to international law has hurt the United States https://const-japan.com/republican-hostility-to-international-law-has-hurt-the-united-states/ Mon, 02 May 2022 20:00:00 +0000 https://const-japan.com/republican-hostility-to-international-law-has-hurt-the-united-states/ The most basic war crime is to wage war. Article I of the 1928 Kellogg-Briand Pact, or Paris Pact, obliges its signatories to declare that they “condemn recourse to war for the solution of international disputes and renounce it as an instrument of national policy in their relations with each other”. ” Article II commits […]]]>

The most basic war crime is to wage war. Article I of the 1928 Kellogg-Briand Pact, or Paris Pact, obliges its signatories to declare that they “condemn recourse to war for the solution of international disputes and renounce it as an instrument of national policy in their relations with each other”. ” Article II commits the parties never to settle “any dispute which may arise between them, except by peaceful means”.

The USSR was not invited to be an early signatory to the Paris Pact, but Grigori Chicherin, Joseph Stalin’s foreign commissioner in the 1920s, was skeptical of empty words. His successor, Maksim Litvinov, sought collective security and worked to include the Soviet Union in the family of nations. Litvinov persuaded eight neighboring states to sign what became known as the Litvinov Protocol, which came into effect in March 1929.

Although the League of Nations was established in 1920 at the end of World War I, the Soviets did not join the League until 1934, a year after Adolf Hitler’s Germany withdrew. But the Litvinov Protocol was registered with the League as “Protocol for the immediate entry into force of the Treaty of Paris of August 27, 1928, concerning the renunciation of war as an instrument of national policy”. Early signatories to the Litvinov Protocol included the Soviet Union, Poland, Latvia, Estonia, and Romania. They agreed to put the Kellogg-Briand pact into effect immediately, without waiting for the other signatories to ratify it.

Four other countries subsequently joined the protocol: Lithuania, Finland, Persia (Iran) and Turkey. Ukraine could not sign the Protocol because it was then a republic-union of the Soviet state. It lacked its own foreign ministry until 1944, when Stalin created the image of an independent Ukraine and Belarus so that they could become founding members of the United Nations and give the Soviet delegation two votes additional to the General Assembly.

All of this means that Russian President Vladimir Putin’s invasion of Ukraine violated not only the Charter of the United Nations and the Kellogg-Briand Treaty prohibiting war, but also the Litvinov Protocol which was created and signed by the ministry. of Stalin’s Foreign Affairs. Do these long-standing commitments still bind the Kremlin? Yes. In 1991, the Russian Federation claimed to inherit all the rights and duties of the former Soviet Union.

Critics have complained that the Paris Pact provides no mechanism for its enforcement. It did not prevent wars of aggression in Eurasia or Asia-Pacific. Yet the Nuremberg Trials and the Tokyo War Crimes Trial tried and executed German and Japanese leaders suspected of starting World War II, a crime against peace. By Nuremberg logic, Putin should be arrested if he enters the jurisdiction of a UN member and brought before the International Criminal Court, or a special tribunal, to try Russia’s war crimes in Ukraine. The Biden administration has said it is gathering information on these crimes for possible prosecution in European courts.

But there is a catch. Neither Russia nor the United States recognizes the International Criminal Court. The Clinton administration helped establish the ICC, but did not seek Senate ratification, and George W. Bush subsequently “unsigned” the court’s founding document. The Bush White House rejected the ICC, it said, to shield American soldiers from frivolous allegations, but the administration may also have feared that senior officials – including Bush, Henry Kissinger and Ronald Reagan – are accused of war crimes and brought to trial. .

This approach relinquished US influence over the ICC, thus necessitating a sustained tightrope approach to protecting US autonomy, and reduced America’s ability to bring criminals to justice. of war in the future. In this, as in other areas, Republican myopia has prevented the United States from using international law to serve its own interests.

This pattern dates back to the 1920s when Republican senators—ignoring William Howard Taft’s calls for a League to enforce peace—blocked the United States from joining the League of Nations, undermining its ability to arrest the Japanese Tōjō Hideki, the Italian Benito Mussolini or Hitler.

After attacking the leftist Sandinista government in Nicaragua, the Reagan administration in 1985 renounced the United States’ commitment to the compulsory jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice, thus weakening the foundations of world order. Republicans have also blocked their country from endorsing the Law of the Sea, now invoked against Beijing in the South China Sea; human rights laws to protect women and children; and climate protocols to help reduce global warming.

Bush unilaterally abrogated the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty, a cornerstone of strategic arms control. Donald Trump destroyed what was supposed to be another cornerstone of arms control and peace in the Middle East: President Obama’s 2015 Iran nuclear deal, the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA). Trump’s withdrawal from the Paris climate accord has set a negative example for China and other polluters to continue endangering the health of people around the world, including Americans.

Ukraine initially did not sign the statute of the International Criminal Court, but joined the ICC in 2015 after Putin annexed Crimea and invaded Ukraine’s Donbass region. So kyiv could now bring charges against Putin in court. British politician Sajid Javid said the UK would help gather evidence.

If the United States wants to leverage its influence in global affairs, it should support global law instead of breaking it.

Walter C. Clemens is associated with the Davis Center for Russian and Eurasian Studies at Harvard University and Emeritus Professor of Political Science at Boston University. His books include “Can Russia change?” and “The republican virus in the body politic.”

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How a sanctioned Russian company gained access to Sudan’s gold https://const-japan.com/how-a-sanctioned-russian-company-gained-access-to-sudans-gold/ Sun, 01 May 2022 01:44:15 +0000 https://const-japan.com/how-a-sanctioned-russian-company-gained-access-to-sudans-gold/ Dozens of dented trucks loaded with gold ore wind through the desert in northeast Sudan and dump their load at a compound on the outskirts of the town of Atbara. The tons of ore, mined by small miners in Nile State, are then transported to a processing plant using excavators and conveyor belts. Only a […]]]>

Dozens of dented trucks loaded with gold ore wind through the desert in northeast Sudan and dump their load at a compound on the outskirts of the town of Atbara.

The tons of ore, mined by small miners in Nile State, are then transported to a processing plant using excavators and conveyor belts. Only a handful of insiders are aware of how much gold the closely watched operation produces, who it is sold to or where it ends up as no public records are available.

Commercial registry documents viewed by Bloomberg provide the first evidence that the complex is owned by Meroe Gold, a company the US Treasury says has ties to the Wagner Group, which it describes as a mercenary company linked to the Russian ministry. of the defense. In addition to access to lucrative mineral deposits, Meroe has licenses to operate in Sudanese industries ranging from transport and agriculture to plastics, according to the documents.

The permits obtained by Meroe illustrate the links that the US Treasury describes as “an interaction between Russia’s paramilitary operations, support for the preservation of authoritarian regimes and the exploitation of natural resources”. Meroe, one of dozens of gold mining operators, has been investing in Sudan since 2017 – the same year the Treasury says Wagner hatched plans for then-dictator Omar al-Bashir to crack down pro-democracy protests.

“When Bashir visited Russia in October 2017, he opened the door wide to Sudan’s resources,” said Suliman Baldo, a US-based independent researcher who previously worked for The Sentry, a Washington-based group. which investigates the links between conflict and money in Sudan. Africa. He spent five years investigating Sudan’s mining industry and found a surprising lack of official oversight.

The European Union sanctioned Wagner in December for allegedly deploying private military agents to conflict zones to fuel violence, loot natural resources and intimidate civilians in violation of international law. The Treasury in 2020 accused the company of “dangerous and destabilizing operations” in foreign countries such as Ukraine, Syria and Mozambique.

In Africa, unstable regimes sought Wagner’s help to support their governments. Last year, the UK and 14 other governments said they witnessed the deployment of Wagner mercenaries to gold-rich Mali to support its military rulers – an allegation the junta later denied. Its contract soldiers have also backed the government of the Central African Republic, one of Africa’s biggest diamond producers, and military commander Khalifa Haftar in an internal power struggle in OPEC member Libya.

Wagner’s relationship with the Bashir administration helped Meroe secure a mining license and access to cheap semi-processed gold ore mined by small-scale operators, according to dozens of miners, executives, engineers, consultants and analysts in Sudan interviewed by Bloomberg.

Small-scale miners operating in the locality of Al-Ibedia close to the Meroe factory said that they sell their residues or artisanal gold to intermediaries who are sent through Meroe to local markets and millers. Samples from their digs are taken for evaluation before a price is negotiated, they said.

Sudan’s foreign ministry said in a March 23 statement that Wagner was not present in the country’s gold mining industry and was not training its military. The ministry did not specifically deny Meroe’s presence in the country. US and UK officials, who asked not to be identified because they are not authorized to speak to the media, said in April that Meroe had intensified work at the project site since the invasion of Ukraine by the Russia.

Wagner, Sudan’s state-owned Mineral Resources Co., the central bank and the finance and mining ministries did not respond to repeated emails seeking comment. Bloomberg was unable to obtain Meroe’s contact details.

“You fall into the category of provocative and hostile media,” said Concord Group, a St. Petersburg-based company that the US Treasury says is controlled by the same person who owns Wagner, in response to an email seeking comments on Meroe’s operations in Sudan. “Therefore, we do not consider it appropriate to respond to your request.”

The Russian Foreign Ministry said Wagner is a private company that operates independently of the government.

Wagner’s secretive and expanding business dealings in Africa show the limits of attempts by Western nations to censor him and other Russian businesses after President Vladimir Putin’s decision to invade Ukraine. The company’s presence in Sudan is also upping the ante in a proxy battle between Russia, which is seeking to forge close ties with its military regime, and the United States and European Union, which are pushing for a return. to civilian rule since a coup in October.

One of the world’s least developed countries, Sudan is a hotbed of illicit financial activity – Transparency International ranks it among the 20 most corrupt countries in the world. Finance Minister Gibril Ibrahim estimated last year that only a fifth of the country’s gold production passed through official channels, with the rest smuggled out of the country. Official bullion production was around 100 metric tons in 2019 and 21.7 tons were exported, according to central bank data, leaving more than $4 billion in gold unaccounted for.

Over the past five years, Meroe has imported goods worth nearly $11 million, including gold processing equipment and a Russian-made twin-turbine helicopter, according to data provided by Sayari Labs. , a Washington-based financial intelligence firm that seeks to prevent crime and promote greater transparency and accountability.

The United States says Wagner is controlled by Yevgeny Prigozhin, a restaurateur and tycoon from Putin’s hometown of St. Petersburg who has been dubbed the president’s “chef” because he provides catering services to the Kremlin. Putin presented Prigozhin with an award for his services to the state in 2014 and praised his international work. In addition to providing mercenaries and political operatives, Prigozhin companies also offer weapons training and election campaign services, according to the US government.

Prigozhin and his Concord group of companies were indicted by the United States in 2018 for interfering in the 2016 US presidential election, with authorities alleging he controlled a troll farm known as the Internet Research Agency that sought to support Donald Trump’s campaign. Concord’s attorneys denied the allegations before the US government dropped the case in March 2020, citing Concord’s attempts to use the court system to gather information about how the US detects and prevents the foreign election interference.

In mid-2020, the U.S. Treasury accused Prigozhin of undermining democracy in Sudan and exploiting its minerals, and extended an asset freeze to Meroe and M-Invest, which it said “serve as a front” for Wagner forces operating in Sudan. U.S. citizens and entities were also prohibited from entering into transactions with them.

Concord said in a response to emailed questions April 5 that Prigozhin had “nothing to do” with private military companies. The company also said on April 11 that Prigozhin was in no way related to Meroe Gold and M-Invest.

Civil rights groups have warned that the lack of public records and lack of transparency in some jurisdictions could render the sanctions imposed on Wagner ineffective.

“Companies that continue to operate after being sanctioned will often begin to use intermediaries or proxies to avoid appearing by name on shipments or transactions,” said Phil Kittock, program director for Sayari Labs.

While the lack of proper monitoring of Sudan’s mineral resources benefits the companies extracting them and their local partners, the country’s people are ultimately harmed, said Abdul Moniem Sidig, a senior member of the Sudanese Mineral Exporters Association. gold.

“Sudan has lost a lot of its wealth,” he said. “Gold has not contributed remarkably to the improvement of the Sudanese economy.”

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Russia expels eight Japanese diplomats in tit-for-tat move https://const-japan.com/russia-expels-eight-japanese-diplomats-in-tit-for-tat-move/ Wed, 27 Apr 2022 16:39:39 +0000 https://const-japan.com/russia-expels-eight-japanese-diplomats-in-tit-for-tat-move/ Moscow/Tokyo – Moscow said on Wednesday it was expelling eight Japanese diplomats in a tit-for-tat response to deportations by Tokyo over the conflict in Ukraine. Accusing Tokyo of following an “openly hostile anti-Russian course”, the Foreign Ministry said in a statement that Japanese diplomats must leave by May 10, in reciprocal response to Japan’s expulsion […]]]>

Moscow said on Wednesday it was expelling eight Japanese diplomats in a tit-for-tat response to deportations by Tokyo over the conflict in Ukraine.

Accusing Tokyo of following an “openly hostile anti-Russian course”, the Foreign Ministry said in a statement that Japanese diplomats must leave by May 10, in reciprocal response to Japan’s expulsion of eight diplomats Russians.

He accused Tokyo of “taking unprecedented steps in modern Russian-Japanese relations” and “abandoning friendly and constructive relations with Russia”.

Earlier this month, Japan expelled the eight diplomats from Moscow and announced it would end Russian coal imports during the military campaign in Ukraine.

Japan has walked alongside its Western allies on sanctions against Russia since the conflict began on February 24.

Tokyo has a complex relationship with Moscow, with attempts to sign a post-World War II peace treaty hampered by a long-running dispute over islands that Japan says are “illegally occupied” by Russia.

Russia and the West have imposed a series of give and take measures on the conflict, including diplomatic expulsions and travel bans.

Meanwhile, prosecutors sent by the Japanese government have started working to support the International Criminal Court’s investigation into alleged war crimes committed by Russian forces in Ukraine, Jiji Press has learned.

In early March, ICC prosecutors opened an investigation into Russia’s alleged war crimes.

By lending a helping hand, Japan hopes to show its willingness to work with the international community and act resolutely against behaviors that undermine the foundations of the international order.

According to Japanese government sources, the country sent three prosecutors, including those from the Supreme Attorney General’s Office. They left Japan on Saturday and arrived in The Hague in the Netherlands, where the ICC is located, on Sunday.

The three interview ICC staff to determine areas where the court needs help. The government will consider what specific support measures it can offer after the three returns in early May.

The United Nations Asia and Far East Institute for the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders, or UNAFEI, based in Tokyo’s Akishima, is considering swapping notes with the ICC.

UNAFEI was established in 1961 under an agreement between the United Nations and the Japanese government. It is managed virtually by the Research and Training Institute of the Ministry of Justice.

UNAFEI, which had made general proposals on cooperation with the ICC, will begin formal discussions on the details with the court on Thursday.

The ICC is the first permanent international criminal court created under an agreement that entered into force in 2002. It prosecutes and punishes individuals who have committed genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity or crimes of assault.

Japan is the largest financial contributor to the ICC.

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7 crime shows like Tokyo Vice to watch next https://const-japan.com/7-crime-shows-like-tokyo-vice-to-watch-next/ Mon, 25 Apr 2022 15:15:00 +0000 https://const-japan.com/7-crime-shows-like-tokyo-vice-to-watch-next/ Nobody likes crime and nobody should. But there is something about crime dramas and thrillers that is very empowering. And that’s why there’s a huge audience for crime shows. It’s probably because of the thrill and excitement we get from seeing a crime solved or a desperate protagonist finally righting the wrong. It’s pretty satisfying […]]]>

Nobody likes crime and nobody should. But there is something about crime dramas and thrillers that is very empowering. And that’s why there’s a huge audience for crime shows. It’s probably because of the thrill and excitement we get from seeing a crime solved or a desperate protagonist finally righting the wrong. It’s pretty satisfying to see that there’s always a way out of what feels wrong. The all-new original HBO Max, Deputy Tokyo renders the same experience to fans of crime shows.

The drama thriller series is based on Jake Adelsteinmemories Tokyo Vice: an American journalist on the rhythm of the police in Japan. It follows a young Jake Adelstein who joins Japan’s leading newspaper as a rookie reporter in the late 90s. The series focuses on how he learns to navigate the dangerous world of the yakuza while seeking the truth and learns to become the journalist he always wanted to be. Created by JT Rogers, Deputy Tokyo features Ansel Elgort, Ken Watanabe, Rachel Keller, Ella Rumpf, Rinko Kikuchi, Hideaki Itōand Show Kasamatsu in key roles, among many others.

From the first episodes released until now, Deputy Tokyo has won a large number of fans and rave reviews from all kinds of audiences. It’s elegant and dangerous, but captures the coming-of-age story of an ambitious young man. It explores the gray areas of the Japanese legal system, and how it is impacted by the yakuza, and ultimately affects the media and ordinary people. And when you add it all up, it makes for a compelling story of crime and one person’s determination to find the right path.

Now if you liked watching Deputy Tokyo and you’re looking for similar shows to watch next (or while waiting for new episodes), here are our top seven picks. These crime thrillers come from different places, different timelines, involving different people, but each one is dark, perilous and violent and promises to thrill you like Deputy Tokyo.

Related: ‘Tokyo Vice’ Review: A Gripping Series That Lives In The Moments Between Acts of Violence

real detective

The anthology crime drama revolves around inexplicable homicides and crimes across the United States and the detectives who are determined to seek justice for the victims. Each season explores a different location and crimes. real detectiveThe defining elements of are its neo-noir self-contained narrative in each story, an ensemble cast (featuring the likes of Matthew McConaughey, Woody Harrelson, Colin Farrel, Michelle Monaghan, Rachel McAdams, Vince Vaughn, Mahershala Alietc.), and intimidating sets that will leave the audience in awe every time. real detective is created by Nic Pizzalattowho is also a writer on the show with Scott Lasser (Season 2), David Milch (Season 3), and Graham Gordy (Season 3). A fourth season of the series is currently in the works.

marcella

This British Nordic Noir series comes from the famous Swedish screenwriter Hans Rosenfeldt who previously created The bridge. The plot follows a former detective who returns to work and investigates an open case from 11 years ago involving a serial killer who appears to have become active in the present day. marcella stars Anna Friel as the titular protagonist who goes to great lengths to solve unpredictable and indescribable homicides linked together. The deeper she delves into matters, the more complicated they become, as does her personal life.

Set among a complex set of characters, with interwoven stories, the series is dark, gritty and sensitive all at once. While marcella primarily deals with the detective’s determination to uncover the truth, it also explores a woman’s emotional journey as a wife and mother and how it all comes together to create a powerful narrative, almost like Deputy Tokyo.

Giri/Haji

Giri/Hajialso translated as Duty/Shame, is a British crime drama series that depicts the complex relationship between the law and the yakuza in Japan. Looks like Deputy Tokyo, to the right? Well, it’s like Tokyo Vice, and it’s not at the same time. Giri/Haji follows a Tokyo detective, Kenzo Mori (Takehiro Hira) who travels to London to find his brother accused of killing the son of a yakuza boss.

Although this story also deals with the conflict between the legal system and what is socially viable in given circumstances, it has a more personal narrative. However, as Deputy Tokyo, Giri/Haji deals with self-discovery in an unknown land. Plus, just as Jake lets himself into Japan’s underworld, Kenzo’s investigation also sends him down the rabbit hole of London’s criminal underworld.

Written and created by Joe Barton, Giri/Haji also stars Kelly MacDonald, Yosuke Kubozuka, Will Sharpe, Masahiro Motoki, Justin Long, Anna Sawaiand Charlie Creed Miles in the main roles.

Related: Exclusive: ‘Tokyo Vice’ Title Theme Evokes ’90s Japan’s Gritty Underbelly, Listen Now

The Sopranos

Created by David Chase, The Sopranos is considered one of the best and most successful crime drama series ever made for American television.

The plot follows the Sopranos, an Italian-American gangster family based in New Jersey, led by Tony Soprano (Jacques Gandolfini). The story focuses on Tony’s struggles as he balances his personal life and family dynamics while running a criminal organization and dealing with his rivals. His wife Carmela (Edie Falco), his protege, Christopher (Michael Imperioli), and her therapist, Melfi (Lorraine Bracco) are the most notable characters in the story.

Even if you find no apparent commonalities between Deputy Tokyo and The Sopranos, they’re both essentially stories about the criminal underworld of their respective societies. But behind all the violence and brutality, there are stories of personal conflict, relationships, mundaneness and common problems of everyday life.

miami vice

You wonder if miami vice inspired the name of Deputy Tokyo? Maybe, maybe not. The hit 1980s crime drama series was produced by Michael Mann for NBC, which is also executive producer and director of the pilot for Deputy Tokyo. But this is not the only link between these two series. Both miami vice and Deputy Tokyo share certain elements of execution and theme, such as the typical life of the city and the criminal world that parallels it.

miami vice follows two Metro-Dade PD detectives, Sonny Crockett (Don Johnson) and Ricardo “Rico” Tubbs (Philippe Michel Thomas) who work undercover in Miami. The series ran from 1984 to 1989 and became such a hit and popular among fans that it also led to a film adaptation in 2006 with Jamie Foxx and Colin Farrel in leading roles.

breaking Bad

With a massive amount of awards and nominations including critical acclaim, global fanfare and cult following, breaking Bad broke a lot of records in a lot of the ways we watch TV shows. Created and produced by Vince Gilligan, breaking Bad ran for five seasons and led to another successful spin-off series, You better call Saulamong other series, short films and a movie.

The neo-Western crime drama television series is about an ordinary man disenchanted with life who goes rogue. Walter White (Bryan Cranston), an overqualified but underpaid chemistry teacher, is diagnosed with cancer and, to manage his expensive medical bills, he goes into manufacturing and distributing crystal meth with his student and business partner, Jesse Pinkman (Aaron Paul). But soon things start to change as he finds himself sucked into the criminal underworld alongside the Mexican drug cartels.

breaking Bad is nothing like Deputy Tokyo in story or characterization. But when it comes to the effect a story has on audiences, well, both shows are powerful in that way and live up to the expectations of a gritty crime show.

Narcos

Narcos is nothing like Deputy Tokyo, so why is this show on this list? Because the evil character of the underworld is a key element in both stories. And both shows are a good look at the respective locations of their respective decades, namely Colombia in the 80s and Japan in the 90s.

This series details the rise of cocaine trafficking in Colombia, focusing on the life story of a drug lord, Pablo Escobar. Narcos is essentially Escobar’s rise and fall as the leading producer and distributor of one of the world’s most valuable commodities and his game of cat and mouse with DEA ​​agents. Through gripping drama, the series explores Escobar’s dynamic with the law and legal entities, rival cartels, politicians, the military and the public, and shines a light on this dangerous international trade in a raw and seedy narrative. never seen before.

The first two seasons of Narcos focus on Pablo Escobar and his business empire as the third season lifts off from Escobar’s downfall. The show also has a spin-off series, Narcos: Mexico.


Ansel Elgort and Ken Watanabe tokyo vice social

Tokyo Vice’s Ansel Elgort and Ken Watanabe on Directing a Series in Japanese and English and the Sequence They’ll Always Remember

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Over 50% of Japanese believe public safety has deteriorated in past 10 years: survey https://const-japan.com/over-50-of-japanese-believe-public-safety-has-deteriorated-in-past-10-years-survey/ Sat, 23 Apr 2022 21:37:00 +0000 https://const-japan.com/over-50-of-japanese-believe-public-safety-has-deteriorated-in-past-10-years-survey/ More than 50% of respondents to a government survey said they believe public safety in Japan has deteriorated over the past 10 years, with many worrying about online fraud and cybercrime , according to results released in March. While 85.1% of respondents said they felt Japan was a safe and peaceful place to live, 10.1% […]]]>

More than 50% of respondents to a government survey said they believe public safety in Japan has deteriorated over the past 10 years, with many worrying about online fraud and cybercrime , according to results released in March.

While 85.1% of respondents said they felt Japan was a safe and peaceful place to live, 10.1% said they thought public safety had “deteriorated” over the past the last decade and 44.5% thought it had gotten “somewhat worse”, according to the Cabinet Office survey.

Police cybercrime investigators compete in a computer and security skills competition in August 2017 in Yokohama, near Tokyo. (Kyodo)

Asked in a multiple-response question about where respondents think they or their loved ones might be victims of crime, “online spaces” topped the list at 53.9%, followed by ” in the street” at 50.7% and “downtown areas”. at 47.9 percent.

In another question about crimes that respondents particularly want the police to crack down on, 41.3% referred to cybercrimes such as unauthorized online access and phishing scams.

The postal survey conducted between December 2021 and January 2022 targeted people aged 18 or over with Japanese nationality. It drew responses from 1,790 people.

Amid the spread of COVID-19 and the increasing digitization of services, 52.6% of respondents highlighted “fraud and commercial scams” in a multiple-choice question about the types of crimes they were suspicious of. more, followed by “cyber crimes, including phishing scams and unauthorized online access” at 52.3%.

According to Gallup, Japan ranked eighth in a 2020 poll that surveyed people’s sense of safety and trust in local law enforcement in 115 countries and regions.

The placement linked Japan to countries such as Canada, South Korea and Indonesia. Norway leads the ranking, while China and Taiwan rank second and fourth respectively.

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France issues international arrest warrant for Carlos Ghosn | Business and Economy News https://const-japan.com/france-issues-international-arrest-warrant-for-carlos-ghosn-business-and-economy-news/ Fri, 22 Apr 2022 07:39:52 +0000 https://const-japan.com/france-issues-international-arrest-warrant-for-carlos-ghosn-business-and-economy-news/ Ghosn staged a daring getaway, being smuggled out of Japan in a briefcase of audio equipment on a private jet, in 2019. France has issued an international arrest warrant for Carlos Ghosn, the car tycoon who skipped bail in Japan and fled to Lebanon in a sensational getaway. The warrant was issued for more than […]]]>

Ghosn staged a daring getaway, being smuggled out of Japan in a briefcase of audio equipment on a private jet, in 2019.

France has issued an international arrest warrant for Carlos Ghosn, the car tycoon who skipped bail in Japan and fled to Lebanon in a sensational getaway.

The warrant was issued for more than 15 million euros ($16.3 million) in suspicious payments between the Renault-Nissan alliance that Ghosn once led and an Omani company, Suhail Bahwan Automobiles (SBA), it said on Friday. prosecutors in the Parisian suburb of Nanterre to the AFP news agency. .

Ghosn, then head of Nissan and head of an alliance between Renault, Nissan and Mitsubishi Motors, was arrested in Japan in November 2018 on suspicion of financial misconduct with his top aide, Greg Kelly.

They both denied any wrongdoing.

In December 2019, while awaiting trial, Ghosn staged a daring getaway, being smuggled out of Japan in a briefcase of audio equipment on a private jet.

Ghosn, who holds French, Lebanese and Brazilian passports, landed in Beirut, which does not have an extradition treaty with Japan.

He said he fled because he didn’t believe he would get a fair trial in Japan, where prosecutors have a nearly 99% conviction rate in cases that go to trial.

He also said Nissan agreed with prosecutors to have him arrested because he wanted to deepen the Japanese firm’s alliance with Renault.

Later Friday, Ghosn’s spokesman said the former Nissan chief was “surprised” by reports of his international arrest warrant.

“It’s surprising, Ghosn has always cooperated with the French authorities,” a spokesman for Ghosn told Reuters news agency.

One of his lawyers, Jean Tamalet, told AFP that the French mandate was “very surprising because the investigating judge and the Nanterre prosecutor know perfectly well that Carlos Ghosn, who has always cooperated with justice, is doing subject to a judicial ban on leaving Lebanese territory”. ”.

The Nanterre judge in charge of the investigation issued five arrest warrants which, in addition to Ghosn, target the current and former leaders of the SBA.

Last year, Ghosn said he was prepared for a long process to clear his name from French authorities, and said he would challenge an Interpol warrant that prevents him from traveling outside of Lebanon.

In February last year, a Turkish court convicted two pilots and a private airline official for their involvement in the getaway.

The Istanbul court sentenced each of them to four years and two months in prison. He acquitted two other pilots of the charge of “illegal trafficking of a migrant”. Two flight attendants were also acquitted for failing to report a crime.

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